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(1.) Passive learner. When students with learning difficulties approach a learning task, they do not lay out a plan for mastery of the task.

(2.) Learned helplessness. When such students are confronted with a difficult task, they avoid the task or they rely on others (either parents or teachers) to structure the task so that they can master it or just “get through it.” Both reactions are the result of a long history of failure and the students’ beliefs that they cannot learn.

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